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  • Adriano dos Santos

Nutrigenomics (DNA Testing): Personalized Diets to Meet Patient Needs

In the realm of chronic disease treatment and health strategies, Nutrigenomics underscores the significance of individualized nutritional interventions.

Nutrigenomics underscores the significance of individualized nutritional interventions.

Recognizing the dynamic interplay between genetics, gut microbiome composition, and therapeutic dietary approaches, Nutrigenomics stands at the forefront of functional medicine. While the concept of universal dietary effects persists, recent studies have illuminated the profound variability in postprandial metabolic responses among individuals after consuming identical foods, spanning blood triglyceride, glucose, and insulin reactions.[1-3]

Delving into the realm of nutrigenomics, a discipline exploring how genetic variances influence dietary responses, researchers acknowledge its role in the intricate tapestry of glucose and dietary impact variations.[5] This variability extends to gut microbial genetic expression, constituting another facet of individual divergence.[6,7] With the integration of nutritional metabolomics into nutrigenomics research, this research anticipates a comprehensive understanding of multifactorial influences shaping individual dietary responses.[8] This emergent field identifies minute molecules and metabolites that may diverge across diets, potentially offering insights into disease risk biomarkers and the ramifications of specific foods.[8-10] Moreover, it reveals the intersection of genetic and epigenetic influences on dietary responses, particularly in glucose metabolism.[11]

A pivotal clinical insight drawn from recent nutritional investigations underscores the uniqueness of each patient's response to dietary interventions. Nutrigenomics emphasizes the imperative for clinicians to harness a comprehensive array of data, thereby tailoring personalized dietary blueprints for individual patients. This mandates a dynamic approach, recognizing that treatment strategies may warrant modification based on evolving patient responses or shifts in dietary impact. In an era of unparalleled personalized data availability, healthcare practitioners can harness these breakthroughs to achieve remarkable outcomes, aligning with ADS Vitality's commitment to tailored healthcare solutions.[12,13]

As a functional nutrition practitioner, I recognise the power of Nutrigenomics, as a powerful evaluation tool.

References

  1. Zeevi D, Korem T, Zmora N, et al. Personalized nutrition by prediction of glycemic responses. Cell. 2015;163(5):1079-1094. doi:1016/j.cell.2015.11.001

  2. Matthan NR, Ausman LM, Meng H, Tighiouart H, Lichtenstein AH. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(4):1004-1013. doi:3945/?ajcn.116.137208

  3. Berry SE, Valdes AM, Drew DA, et al. Human postprandial responses to food and potential for precision nutrition [published correction appears in Nat Med. 2020;26(11):1802]. Nat Med. 2020;26(6):964-973. doi:1038/s41591-020-0934-0

  4. Murphy AM, Smith CE, Murphy LM, et al. Potential interplay between dietary saturated fats and genetic variants of the NLRP3 inflammasome to modulate insulin resistance and diabetes risk: insights from a meta-analysis of 19 005 individuals. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019;63(22):e1900226. doi:1002/mnfr.201900226

  5. Zweers H, Smit D, Leij S, Wanten G, Janssen MC. Individual dietary intervention in adult patients with mitochondrial disease due to the m.3243 A>G mutation. Nutrition. 2019;69:110544. doi:1016/j.nut.2019.06.025

  6. Tily H, Patridge E, Cai Y, et al. Gut microbiome activity contributes to prediction of individual variation in glycemic response in adults. Diabetes Ther. 2022;13(1):89-111. doi:1007/s13300-021-01174-z

  7. Hoefer CC, Hollon LK, Campbell JA. The role of the human gutome on chronic disease: a review of the microbiome and nutrigenomics. Clin Lab Med. 2022;42(4):627-643. doi:1016/j.cll.2022.09.015

  8. Kiani AK, Bonetti G, Donato K, et al. Polymorphisms, diet and nutrigenomics. J Prev Med Hyg. 2022;63(2 Suppl 3):E125-E141. doi:15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2754

  9. Srivastava S, Dubey AK, Madaan R, et al. Emergence of nutrigenomics and dietary components as a complementary therapy in cancer prevention. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022;29(60):89853-89873. doi:1007/s11356-022-24045-x

  10. Ruskovska T, Budic-Leto I, Corral-Jara KF, et al. Systematic analysis of nutrigenomic effects of polyphenols related to cardiometabolic health in humans – evidence from untargeted mRNA and miRNA studies. Ageing Res Rev. 2022;79:101649. doi:1016/j.arr.2022.101649

  11. Sharma S, Kriebel J, Grallert H. Epigenetic regulation of glucose metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017;20(4):266-271. doi:1097/MCO.0000000000000375

  12. Hassapidou M, Tziomalos K, Lazaridou S, et al. The Nutrition Health Alliance (NutriHeAl) study: a randomized, controlled, nutritional intervention based on Mediterranean diet in Greek municipalities. J Am Coll Nutr. 2020;39(4):338-344. doi:1080/07315724.2019.1660928

  13. Christensen L, Vuholm S, Roager HM, et al. Prevotella abundance predicts weight loss success in healthy, overweight adults consuming a whole-grain diet ad libitum: a post hoc analysis of a 6-wk randomized controlled trial. J Nutr. 2019;149(12):2174-2181. doi:1093/jn/nxz198


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